Fans are a great way to help boost productivity and can be placed very close to plants, to help strengthen the marijuana plant and move air around. A fan's ability to circulate air from one locations to another is measured in cubic feet per minute, so you should choose a fan based on the size of your grow room. Growers should find a fan with the capacity to circulate the room's air three times in one minute.
For example, if you have a 4ft x 4ft x 6ft grow room, then it is 96 cubic feet and you should find a fan that is at least 288 cfm (3 x 96). If you have a warmer grow room, you might want to remove the air up to 5 times per minute, so you may want to invest in a grow fan that is at least 480 cfm.
Mold is a fungus with microscopic spores that exist in the air and thrive in moist, warm, or nutrient rich environments. It is very bad for human consumption and can ruin an entire yield. Mold spores are all around us and the key to avoiding it is to avert the conditions they thrive in. A grow room should be regularly cleaned to remove spores. Intake filterscan help prevent spores from entering the space, and a proper ventilation system should vent any remaining spores out. A dehumidifiercan be your best friend in reducing dampness and eliminating mold growth.
Oscillating fans are commonly seen in homes during hot days to keep people cool. They can also be used in grow rooms to help bring the temperature down and circulate air in a grow room. They also help to simulate a breeze on plant limbs and branches, helping them to grow stronger.
Inline fans are used mostly in ventilation, and create a powerful suction that can help draw fresh air into your grow room, or remove and/or filter old air out. We recommend using a combination of both oscillating fans and inline fans to maintain ideal control over the air quality of your grow room.
A good ventilation system can be crucial to keeping your cannabis plants happy and healthy. In its most basic form, an open window can act as a ventilation system. With most grow rooms though, they need more fresh air than an open window can provide. Grow Daddy provides all of the tools that you need to build a custom ventilation system:
Active Venting: Almost all grow tents include a ventilation hole near the top to catch hot air that rises. The vent should be equipped with a fan to push air out, which is why it is "called active" venting. You can remove odors from the air by connecting your fan to a carbon filter.
Ducting: Ducting is simply used to direct incoming or outgoing air through the appropriate vents.
Passive Intake: Almost all grow tents include a passive intake vent near the bottom of the grow tent, along with screen to keep dust out. As air is removed by the active venting, air will be drawn in from passive intake vents. Make sure that there are no holes in the roof or walls to prevent false intakes and ensure that all of the air entering the grow tent is coming from the passive intake vents. Some growers will use afan to help control the amount of air that enters the room.
Filters: Filters can be used to remove odors from the vented air, and passive intake vents feature a mesh cover that will keep out dust, but if you want to prevent pathogens such as mold from entering your grow room, you may want to take a look at a Hepa intake filter. It's a little pricier but will ensure that the air entering your grow room is clean.
Inline Fans: Inline fans help to direct air into or out of a grow room. They create a powerful suction that cull pull air through the fan and into the direction you want to send it.
Healthy cannabis plants grown in soil require a steady pH level of 7. As your plants grows it absorbs nutrients and adds waste materials back into the soil. This addition of waste will cause pH to fluctuate, which makes it important to test your pH at least once a week and 1-2 days after feeding. If your pH has shifted outside of the 6-8 range, you should adjust the pH using pH calibrating solutions. If you have pH-upor pH-down solutions, just follow the instructions. Trial and error is very common practice with pH adjustments.
There is a third solution called a pH Buffer #7, which is always at neutral and is used to calibrate your testing tools.
Please note that hydroponic plants require a steady range of 5.2-6.3, and tends to change very quickly. Ensure that you check your pH levels much more regularly, if not daily, if you are growing using a hydroponic system.
Nutrient lockout can happen to the soil when the pH level is outside of the 6-8 pH range. It can cause irregularities such as growth stunting, wilting and leaf spots. The best way to prevent it is to regularly check the pH level of your soil, as well as the pH level of the nutrients you are using. If your soil already has a low or high pH, the nutrients you are using may be throwing it out of range, so you may need to balance the pH levels in the nutrients with the liquid pH-up and pH-down controls.
Most growers that us CO2 in their grow room typically use a timed release system; a control box that released compressed CO2 from a tank. CO2 tanks can be purchased from your local welding gas suppliers.
Once you have a CO2 tank, you need a CO2 regulatorand a CO2 controller. The regulator will determine how much CO2 is released and the controller will help create the perfect CO2 conditions.
For smaller spaces, you may want to try small CO2 canisters, which are more rudimental systems that disperse CO2 for up to two weeks at a time in spaces 12x12 and lower.
Many climate controllers can help regulate multiple functions such as lights, CO2, humidity, and ventilation.
The optimal CO2 level for cannabis is 1500ppm, but there is typically between 300-400ppm of CO2 already in the air. CO2 meters will tell you how much C02 is in the ambient area, but you may need to calculate how much CO2 you need to add to reach the optimal level.
Calculating your CO2 needs is a two-step process that requires you to know the volume of your grow area. First determine the volume in cubic feet by multiplying the square footage of your space by the height of the room.
Once you have the cubic size of your grow area, multiply it by 0.0012. This will tell you how much carbon dioxide you will need to supplement your room in order to reach 1500ppm.
Cannabis enjoys a similar temperature as humans, so if you find it too cold or too warm, chances are so do your plants. Optimal grow temperature is around 24°C. Under most conditions, room temperature is controlled by a thermostat, but if you have lighting that gives off heat, you may need to find alternative ways to lower the temperature of your grow area.
Ventilation plays a key role in controlling the temperature of your grow area. If you want to cool the space, opening a window or venting in fresh air can help to lower the temperature. If you have trouble lowering the temperature, you may want to find a cooler space in the house.
If your grow area runs lower than 24°, you may want to invest in a small space heater. Heaters can be used in conjunction with climate controller to moderate the temperature of your room.
To protect the security of your grow, you should deal with odours before they leave the grow room. Growers have discovered three main ways to do this:
Ozone Generation: Ozone is also known as activated oxygen and it is a very strong sterilizer. When ozone comes in contact with odourous molecules, it destroys the cell walls and leaves behind only the oxygen molecules. Ozone generators can add ozone to your grow room, but ozone can be hazardous to human and plant consumption, so it should be used with a bit of caution. Timed releases can help to reduce risks.
Activated Carbon Air Filtering: Activating carbon is the most effective and safest way to deal with cannabis odours and is part of any complete grow system. Charcoal treated with oxygen is known as activated charcoal and is the main ingredient of an activated carbon filter. It is usually contained in a metal tube with filters that screen the air passing through, attracting odourus molecules as they pass through your active out-take vent.
Ionizing: Ionizers control odours, dust, mildew, smoke, mold, stale air, batericia, and pollen by releasing negative ions that neutralize molecules. Some ions attached themselves to odour molecules to weigh them down so that they cannot remain airborne. Ionizers are cost affective for small grow operations but the issue created by this process is that when the molecules fall, they will stick to your plants and growing equipment and will require additional cleaning.
Cannabis plants grow best in a space kept between 40%-80% relative humidity, or rH, a unit that refers to the amount of water in the air. The best way to manage humidity is to ensure that fresh air is constantly introduced into the environment, so a good ventilation system could be all you need. A simple weather station can help to monitor the indoor humidity. If your humidity is too high, you may need to invest in a dehumidifier to avoid issues such as mold growth. Good growers try to avoid the cost of a dehumidifier by installing a good ventilation system.
Your watering schedule should be based on the type of soil you are using and the size of your pots. A good measure is to pick up a pot after it's been watered and when it is totally dry to get a sense of the weight difference. It's no perfect science, but a good rule of thumb is to water your plants every 2-3 days and adjust as needed. Do not ever let the soil dry out completely for long periods of time.
A good system for a three-gallon pot looks like this:
Day 1: Water Day 2-3: Let dry Day 4: Check soil and water if needed
You can detect issues by watching your plants closely. If you see wilting, it could be a sign of overwatering as well as underwatering. Be aware that overwatering will eventually kill cannabis, and all you can do in this situation is to let the soil dry out and cross your fingers. Placing a fannear the plant can help solve an overwatering problem, but you may be required to transplant your plants.
Reservoirs should be emptied and the nutrient solution replaced at least every 5-7 days. People often use their EC/TDS meters to measure nutrient levels and top up their nutrient solution when levels get low. EC/TDS meters only measure overall salt levels, not the levels of specific nutrients. This means nutrients not completely used by your plants will begin to create bacteria, which can cause algae. The solution to this is to turn off the pump, empty the reservoir, clean it and fill with a solution that has been left to reach room temperature.
Rockwool is the most common media for rooting cuttings and seed germination. Many growers claim that rockwool cubes are the easiest method for this stage, but rockwool can be an ideal substrate for plants of all sizes because its unique structure provides a good balance of water and oxygen, which promotes healthy root growth. Rockwool should be soaked overnight to adjust the pH.
The rising cost and difficult disposal of rockwool (it doesn't decompose) have led many cannabis growers to move towards clay pellets and coconut fibre.
Clay pellets are made by baking clay in a kiln and are full of tiny air pockets, which give them good drainage. You should, however, flush clay on a regular basis with a flushing agent. Though pellets are rather expensive, unlike most other media, they can be reused. After harvest, be sure to sterilize and remove old roots.
Coconut fibre, also known as coco or coir, has become one of the most popular growing mediums because it's an "organic" medium that provides ideal conditions for hydroponic systems.
Coconut fibre is the pulverized husks of coconuts and comes in different grades. It can maintain a larger oxygen capacity than rockwool, while also holding more water and some growers say that it offers natural insect-repelling qualities. It also has low nutrient levels, and therefor won't interfere with the composition of your nutrient solutions.
There is no doubt that LED light systems have introduced a number of benefits to the industry, but there are still things to consider when making this decision. HID bulbs try to replicate the energy created by the sun in a much truer way, and therefore offer plants a more natural, full-spectrum simulated sunlight, whereas LED lights try to digitally deliver parts of that light spectrum. It really comes down to quality. High end LED lights bring about a spectrum that is much closer to HID bulbs.
LED lighting can give you the same desired results while using less energy and creating less heat, but avoid low quality circular LED lights, because they do not perform as well as HID bulbs.
Growers will generally get the best yields using about 40-60 watts of LED lighting per square foot of grow space. For this reason, using multiple smaller LED panels will produce more favourable yields than one larger panel, because more panels often makes it easier for you to spread the light to where it's needed. Many LED grow lights even offer the option to daisy chain multiple units.
Some LED lights are advertised by their HID comparison power, rather than their actual power, so pay attention to the “actual power draw” or "actual power consumption" which is the amount of electricity the panel pulls from the wall. For example, a unit with a rating of 1,000W but an actual draw of 400W would be sufficient for a 10 square foot area (40W per sq ft x 10).
LEDs can cause cannabis leaves to look discoloured, even if nutrient levels are fine. This doesn't always mean that there is something wrong with your plants, but if you're noticing discoloured leaves in spots closest to the lights, it may be an indication that you're experiencing light burn. Most modern LED grow lights need to be kept at least 12-18" away from your plants to prevent light burn.
You want your plants to get as much light as they can, so you generally want to keep your lights hung close to your plants, but just not too close. Keeping your lights 12-18" away will require adjustments as your plants grow.
HID bulbs can range anywhere from 75-4,000 watts, but the power of these bulbs are typically best described by their lumens, the measure of how much light per square foot is emitted by a bulb. Lumens and watts go hand in hand and can vary greatly, but lumens are a better measure because it has more to do with the design of the light than the wattage. That is to say that some 1000W lights give off the same lumens as a 600W light.
If you have an idea of what size your grow room is you can begin to calculate how much light you need. Keep in mind that different stages of growth require different lumens, but when setting up your grow room you want no less than 5,000 lumens per square foot, even if you just have one plant. However, the sun gives off approximately 10,000 lumens per square foot, so if you want to maximize your yields, aim for 10,000.
Cannabis plants require at least 2,500 lumens to grow, but if you aim that low, you're likely to be disappointed by your yields.
Metal Halide lights are HID lights that are best used for the cloning and vegetative stages of your cannabis plants. They produce a bluer light than High-Pressure Sodium lights, which are better suited to your plant's flowering stage. When using a High Intensity Discharge system, these two lights should be used in parallel, changing bulbs to fit the appropriate stage of the cannabis life cycle.
It's very important that HID bulb wattage match the ballasts. HID bulbs generally need specific ballasts, and your ballast can safely operate specific types of HID bulbs. Feeding a smaller bulb more power can cause it to overheat and fail. A larger bulb in a smaller ballast will not be powered correctly, which will reduced its efficiency and may shorten its lifetime.
The best way to measure a light reflector is by its uniformity. Simply put, how well does it create an evenly distributed light footprint. What you don't want is a reflector that creates any hot points, because it may force you to hang your light further than you’d like, reducing to total output of your lights.
One way to solve hot spot problems is to use dimpled reflector surfaces, which are built to diffuse light so the photons are approaching your plants from more angles than they would if you used a polished surface reflector.
Open reflectors are shaped in a way that both reflects as much light as possible down to your plants, but also ducts excess heat upwards where it can be vented out of the room via fans or other methods.
Open reflectors have the benefit of being adjustable, which means that your light can be placed either close or far from your plant and you can change the shape of the reflector to suit your needs. This flexibility, along with their lower price, makes them a popular choice among budget growers.
Closed, air-cooled reflectors have a glass sheet on the bottom of the reflector and cool air flowing through from one side to the other, where it is then pumped out of the room.
Air cooled reflectors come into their own when growing heat sensitive crops in confined spaces.
The number of plants you can grow in a given space is a highly disputed amongst growers, but here are some general guidelines will give you a broad idea of the number of plants you can maintain in popular tent sizes available:
Keep in mind that the more space your plant has to grow, the better yields you will get from it. That is to say that two mature plants in a 4'x4' tent could yield as much bud as four mature plants. When in doubt, contact the manufacturer and ask if a specific tent will work for what you have in mind.
We have compiled a list of things you will need before you begin growing:
1. Grow Area One of the few things we can't offer you is a safe, secure space to grow. Before you do anything, make sure the space you want to turn into your grow room is clean, has windows for venting and is temperature controlled.
2. Grow Tent Grow tents are a necessary tool, but they have premade exhaust vents, wall to wall reflective mylar, and a grow light hanging bars that save you from having to drill holes into the ceiling. You just need a space in your house and you can be growing in no time.
3. Grow Lights Plants need plenty of light, whether its LED or High Intensity Discharge. One of the most common mistakes growers use is underestimating how much light their plants will need. We have take the guesswork out of knowing how much light is enough light with our grow kits, but if you are growing a canopy larger than 25 square feet, you may require multiple lights. You can calculate how much light you will need here.
4. Air Flow It's very important to have an idea where you will exhaust your heat and stale air out, and how you plan to pump fresh air in. This steady flow of air will strengthen your plant's branches, enhance growth, and assist with temperature and humidity control. A good air exchange system will include vents at the bottom to bring in fresh air, two oscillating fans pointed at the bottom of your grow room, a charcoal filter, and inline ducting fan, a fan speed controller, and ducting to vent the stale air to the outside of your grow room. Please ensure that you are not pumping stale air into the same space that you are venting fresh air from.
5. Environmental Controls
The environment that your plants grow in is as important as the lighting system or nutrients you choose. You'll need to consider things like temperature, humidity, odour, and CO2. Many of these things will be regulated by good ventilation, but you will need to monitor the conditions inside your grow room to be sure of it.
Some things you may want to consider include: - a hand sprayer - a weather station to monitor heat and humidity inside the grow area - additional CO2 for increased yields
Growing cannabis requires you to simulate nighttime and daytime, and at different stages of the plant's lifecycles they require different schedules. Timers are necessary tools for helping to to maintain rigorous lighting schedules, as well as controlling heat, humidity or any other electronic devices you have maintaining your grow environment. You can choose between basic timers that control when these devices turn on and off, or more expensive climate controllers that will control things like temperature, humidity, day and night settings, CO2 emitters, feeding times, etc.
7. Measuring tools
Your water's pHdetermines the level of acidity and alkaline levels, while its PPM has to do with the minerals and soluble matter n the water. While you are feeding your plants, you will want to make sure that the soil or other grow medium maintains a health pH and PPM, otherwise your crop can be lost. Hydroponic systems even require daily monitoring. The easiest way to monitor these levels is with a pH meter and a PPM meter.
8. Grow System
Choosing whether to grow in soil, or in a hydroponic system using clay pebbles, coco, or another grow medium is a tough choice for new growers.Hydroponic systems are soil-less and require you to mix nutrients into a water reservoir to feed your plants. It provides the best results, but over feeding and root rot tend to cause new growers a lot of headaches. Soil mediums are good options for beginners because it is more forgiving to over feeding and the soil is already packed with nutrients, but correcting issues can be difficult.
Some additional things you will for a soil-based grow: - Fabric pots - Soil (not currently sold online at Grow Daddy) - Perlite to aerate the soil (not currently sold online at Grow Daddy) - Vermiculite for moisture retention (not currently sold online at Grow Daddy) - Vinyl Drip Trays
There are many options when it comes to choosing a nutrient program for your plants. You will need different nutrient solutions for different stages of the plant's life cycles, and there are enhancersto help you achieve different desired grow results. We recommend starting out with a nutrient kit, which will make sure you have all your bases covered.
10. Harvest Tools
Once your plants mature, you still have a few steps to go. In addition to regular pruning, you will also need to cut, dry and trim buds. Drying racks are a good solution to help air dry your bud. Trimming can be done by hand, but you can also invest in a hand-crank leaf trimmer to help remove unwanted leaves and stems from your buds.
Base nutrients are the fundamentals of all feed charts, while supplements help to improve different elements of your grow. Supplements could theoretically be used to grow cannabis alone, but it would be difficult to choose the right supplements as your only plant food.
In general, a base nutrients offer a well-balanced selection of essential elements, including important micronutrients. These base formulas should be used from start to finish during a growing cycle and are your best bet for keeping plants growing healthy. Supplements, or enhancers, provide inputs that improve the peak performance of the base nutrient. Each one contains ingredients intended to provide a dramatic effect in all stages of growth.
Growth enhancers can also help with early root and foliage health, to ensure your cannabis plants have the best chance to unlock as you move to flowering.
Many producers like Remo, Cyco, General Hydroponics offer nutrient series that combine base nutrients with growth and bloom enhancers to ensure that you have all of the elements that you need. That is why you will find growth and bloom enhancers lumped together in our Base Nutrients category.
New growers tend to have a difficult time trying to select the best nutrients, which is made trickier by the sheer number of nutrient companies and the varieties they offer. The most important time is understand the right stages to give the various nutrients to your plants, which is why NPK ratios are important. The NPK ratio refers to the blend of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (the K comes from potassium's atomic symbol.) The number in each ratio represents how much of each element is contained by % of total volume. For example, a 9-3-6 formula contains 9% nitrogen, 3% phosphorus, and 6% potassium.
During the vegetative stage, your plants will be growing quickly and will need plenty of Nitrogen to produce leaves and stems. That's why nitrogen-rich nutrients, such as GreenPlanet's Medi-One, that offers a 4-3-3 ratio, are great.
The flowering stage requires less Nitrogen, especially after week 5-6 when the plant stops growing stems and leaves and begins to focus on bud-building. Bud growth depends on Phosphorus and even more Potassium. For example, Remo's Bloom solution offers growers a 1-4-6 ratio that is perfect for a healthy bud growth.
Root rot is a major problem in cannabis cultivation, especially hydroponic grow systems, but you can avoid this issue by watching for signs early.
If you notice your plants drooping, growing slowly or not at all, or showing nutrient problems even though you’re using a good quality nutrient, the problem may be root rot. If you’re using hydroponics system, you can easily check the health of your roots. If they are white and dense, they're healthy. If they are brown, slimy, thin or mushy, then you are experiencing root rot. Harmful microorganisms such as pythium and phytophthora thrive on hydroponics nutrients, dirty water, light, and water temperatures that are less than optimal. They can suck the life out of your roots within a few days, and checking your roots regularly can help to catch them before they become a major issue.
If you are experiencing root rot, you can stop it using the following methods:
Early detection - Monitor the health of your plants regularly above ground and if you are using a hydroponic system, visually check the roots often.
Reverse osmosic water - Running your water through a reverse osmosis filter will help by removing unwanted materials in the water that may be causing the issue.
Overwatering - Make sure not to overwater. Ensure that your soil nearly dry before your wanter your plants again. If you suspect you may be overwatering, allow your soil to dry completely before adding any more water.
Water temperature - Keep your root zone and water in a temp. range of 19.44°C - 21.67°C.
Beneficial Microbes - There are manyprotective solutions that provide beneficial microbes to help your roots defend against harmful organisms as well as promote growth, yield, and general plant health.
Hydroponic Enzymes - Hydroponic enzyme products such as SensiZym digest root-shedding debris and other harmful materials in the root zone. This helps with nutrient uptake and protects against harmful organisms.
Aeration - Roots need oxygen to grow healthy, so installing an aeration device in your nutrient reservoir can help keep your root zone oxygenated. If you're growing in soil, make sure it has perlite or other spacers that loosen soil and prevent it from getting waterlogged. Many commercial soil products lack sufficient aeration.
Light Lock - Make sure to keep all light out of your root zone.
Currently we are focused on providing Canadian growers with the best possible customer service, so we do not offer international shipping. Some items are easier to ship than others, so feel free to send us a message if there's something you really want, and we will do our best to accommadate special orders.
All of our products are priced for the Canadian market and are displayed in CAD. Some browsers may cause the currencies to display in American, or another currency. You can change the displayed currency at anytime using the dropdown menu near the top left of your browser.
We have a number of trusted suppliers and manufacturers, so if there is something that you need that you can't find on the site, don't hesitate to drop us a line. We would love to work with you to find exactly what you need!
The terms indica & sativa refer to different cannabis plant varieties that have been cultivated through selective breeding and variate in appearance and geographical origins. Tall sativa plants more narrow and are described to have stimulating and uplifting effects. Short, bushy indica plants are typically associated with more relaxing bodily
effects. Many hybrid strains have been grown to offer benefits of both, but these general distinctions are a topic of great debate in the science community.
Terpenes are aromatic compounds that occur naturally
in most plants and help to give a particular strain its unique odour and flavour. New research into terpenes seems to be resulting in evidence that terpenes also contribute to the overall effects of cannabis plants. For instance, some terpenes carry anti-inflammatory properties while others are said to have calming effects.